options trading

Understanding Put-Call Parity


Investors practising options trading should get familiar with the put-call parity principle, a common concept in the options market. Put-call parity describes how calls, puts, and the fundamental futures contract are related to one another. The puts and calls must have the same strike, expiration, and underlying futures contract in order to comply with this principle. Due to the high correlation of the put-call relationship, there is a chance for arbitrage if the put-call parity is broken. 

Put Call Parity

According to put-call parity, holding puts and calls simultaneously on the same underlying asset at the same strike prices and expiration dates would yield equivalent returns to holding forward contracts at the same options expiration dates, with forward prices being equal to those at these options’ strike prices. 

  • The core idea behind put-call parity is that a portfolio holding both short put options and long call options would have a return equivalent to that of a forward contract with the same primary strike price and expiration date. 
  • Put-Call parity says that buying and selling European Call options and Put options in a single session with the same asset is equivalent to buying the underlying asset now. 
  • It states that holding a short European put simultaneously and a long European call of the same class would yield the same profit as holding only a forward contract of the same underlying asset, at the same expiration, with the forward price being the same as the option strike price. 
  • It requires no assumptions regarding the probability distribution of future prices for the underlying, no continuous trading, nor the myriad of other complications that are typically associated with options trading pricing models.
  • The concept suggests an investor may hold a long European call and short European put of the same class in order to mirror the return that would be provided by holding one forward contract with the same strike price as the options contract. 

Take Benefits of Each Chance

Put-call parity is useful to investors looking to hedge against price fluctuations in the market as put-call parity allows for the calculation of investments required to compensate put options against calls. Knowing that they are owned by the same underlying securities, the parity aids in understanding how demand and supply affect options pricing as well as how the value of an option is connected between different strikes and expirations. 

The formula of Put- Call Parity

In accordance with the concept of “put-call parity,” concurrently buying and selling a European call and put option of the same class (with the same underlying asset, strike price, and expiration date) is similar to immediately purchasing the underlying asset. This relationship would likewise hold true in the opposite direction. The formula for calculating put call parity is c + k = f + p. In other words, the futures price plus the put price is equal to the call price plus the strike price of both options. 

The Links lead to Strategies.

You can estimate the value of a put or call in relation to its other components using put-call parity. An arbitrage opportunity arises when the put-call parity is broken, which occurs when the put-and-call option prices diverge to the point where this relationship is no longer valid. Theoretically, knowledgeable traders may make a risk-free profit, but such opportunities are unusual and short-lived in liquid markets. Because this relationship must exist in principle, it is necessary to understand the put-call parity theory. If this link between European put and call prices does not hold, arbitrage opportunities exist. By rearranging this formula, we can find solutions for any of the equation’s components. This gives us the ability to make a false call or put option. Based on put-call parity, a trader could use an arbitrage method to make money if a portfolio of synthetic options costs less than an actual option.

Arbitrators on the market will take quick advantage of an arbitrage opportunity, and stock prices or options automatically adjust themselves to create the Put-Call parity. In situations where a puts price moves away from its calls, a buy-call arbitrage opportunity emerges. This can lead to an arbitrage in which the futures-put combo could be purchased while the call could be sold.  

Arbitrage Strategy

Arbitrage is the technique of profiting from price discrepancies between marketplaces for the same asset. In its simplest form, Arbitrage is a circumstance where a trader may benefit from the disparity of asset values in various marketplaces. The most basic form of arbitrage is buying an asset at a lower price in one market and simultaneously selling it at a higher price in another market. 


Not all individual investors should engage in options trading. Compared to traditional stock and bond investment, it calls for a lot more care and expertise. Put-call parity is an important idea for some individual investors, professional investors, and investment firms that desire to trade options. It explains how a put option and a call option with identical assets, time periods, and expiration dates are functionally equivalent. Knowing this theory makes it possible to book profits when call and put options are not equal in value.

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